Previous reports have recognized the benefits of combining prostatic resection and inguinal hernia repair. This study reports the surgical management of bladder-outlet obstruction with simultaneous transurethral prostatectomy and mesh-based tension-free inguinal hernia repair. A prospective study was undertaken of 31 consecutive patients seen from January 1993-December 1998 at the Western Medical Center. All surgery was performed electively under epidural anesthesia, and prophylactic antimicrobial agents were given routinely. Two hernia repair techniques were used: the mesh-plug technique and the Lichtenstein repair. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Over a 5-year period, in 31 consecutive patients without urinary tract infection, 36 groin hernias were diagnosed. The mean+/-SD age of patients was 65.9+/-6.3 years. Twenty-four (66.7%) hernias were direct, and 12 (33.3%) were indirect; 61.1% (22) were primary hernias, and 38.8% (14) were recurrent. The mesh-plug and Lichtenstein repair techniques were used to treat 22 (61.1%) and 14 (38.8%) hernias, respectively. Wound hematoma developed after three hernioplasties (8.3%) and wound infection in one (2.7%). Hospital stays ranged between 2 and 4 days. The mean follow-up period was 69 months. The recurrence rate was 2.7% (one hernia). Simultaneous mesh-based tension-free herniorrhaphy and transurethral prostatectomy is a reliable and safe alternative for patients with both prostate enlargement and groin hernia. Hospital stay is not affected by the combined procedure, and the infection rate is acceptably low.