Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) is a clonal disease, originated at the level of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) and characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome and its oncogenic product p210(BcrAbl). Such a protein has been shown to be essential for malignant transformation, since it is capable of altering cell adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Historically, CML has been treated by using different approaches: arsenic (in the early days), a variety of chemical agents (busulfan, hydroxyurea, cytarabine), cytokines (IFN-alpha, IFNalpha-PEG), hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and more recently drugs generated by design (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib). All these molecules exert specific effects on HSC and lead to a variety of clinical and biological responses. In this article, we present an overview about hematopoiesis in CML and its implications in the treatment of this disease.