The aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer (CC) is widely accepted. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in Mexican women attending at the Mexican Institute for Social Security from different areas of Mexico. DNAs from 2,956 cervical samples were subjected to HPV genotyping: 1,020 samples with normal cytology, 931 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 481 with high grade HGSIL and 524 CC. Overall HPV prevalence was 67.1%. A total of 40 HPV types were found; HPV16 was detected in 39.4% of the HPV-positive samples followed by HPV18 at 7.5%, HPV31 at 7.1%, HPV59 at 4.9%, and HPV58 at 3.2%. HPV16 presented the highest prevalence both in women with altered or normal cytology and HPV 18 presented a minor prevalence as reported worldwide. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated for the HPV types. The analysis of PR showed that HPV16 presents the highest association with CC, HPV 31, -33, -45, -52 and -58 also demonstrating a high association. The most prevalent HPV types in cervical cancer samples were -16, -18, -31, but it is important to note that we obtained a minor prevalence of HPV18 as reported worldwide, and that HPV58 and -52 also were genotypes with an important prevalence in CC samples. Determination of HPV genotypes is very important in order to evaluate the impact of vaccine introduction and future cervical cancer prevention strategies.