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Gram-negative bacilli are the most common bacteria causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBSIs) in Latin American countries. The antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from blood cultures in pediatric patients with NBSIs over a 3-year period in a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mexico City were determined using the VITEK-2 system. Sixteen antibiotics were tested to ascertain the resistance rate and the minimum inhibitory concentration using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth micro-dilution method as a reference. A total of 931 isolates were recovered from 847 clinically significant episodes of NBSI. Of these, 477 (51.2%) were caused by Gram-negative bacilli. The most common Gram-negative bacilli found were Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.4%), Escherichia coli (18.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (15.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.9%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (4.6%). More than 45 and 60% of the K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively, were resistant to cephalosporins, and 64% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones. A. baumannii exhibited low rates of resistance to antibiotics tested. In the E. cloacae and P. aeruginosa isolates, no rates of resistance higher than 38% were observed. In this study, we found that the proportion of NBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms is increasing in a tertiary care pediatric hospital of Mexico.

Dr. De la Cruz Miguel Ángel

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