It has been described that febrile seizures during infancy increase risk of subsequent non-febrile seizures during the adulthood. However, latency period between febrile seizure and the onset of the first spontaneous seizure has not been evaluated. The present study was designed to investigate the susceptibility to subsequent seizures in immature rats that had experienced early-life hyperthermic seizures and before they achieved the adult age. The results were compared with those induced by hyperthermia alone. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was applied 24h or 20 days after hyperthermic seizures or hyperthermia were induced in 10-day-old rats by a regulated stream of moderately heated air. One day after hyperthermic seizures or hyperthermia, animals demonstrated enhanced latency to the PTZ-induced myoclonic (88% and 53%, respectively), clonic (60% and 60%, respectively) and tonic seizures (233% and 659%, respectively). The incidence of myoclonic and clonic seizures was similar to that in control group (100%). However, hyperthermic seizures reduced (50%) the incidence of tonic seizures. Twenty days after hyperthermic seizures there was an augmented latency to tonic seizures (123%) and reduced incidence for all the PTZ-induced seizures (71% myoclonic; 71% clonic seizures; 57% tonic seizures) when compared with control group (100%). In contrast, hyperthermia enhanced only the latency to myoclonic (133%) and clonic seizures (659%). Our data indicate that hyperthermic seizures or hyperthermia induces a protective effect against PTZ-induced seizures during a latency period. A possible involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is discussed.